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Haemodialysis

Haemodialysis is a method that is used to achieve the extracorporeal removal of waste products such as creatinine and urea and free water from the blood when the kidneys are in a state of renal failure. Hemodialysis is one of three renal replacement therapies (the other two being renal transplant and peritoneal dialysis)

Routine hemodialysis is conducted in a dialysis outpatient facility, either a purpose built room in a hospital or a dedicated, stand alone clinic.

Hemodialysis is usually done two to three times per week, for about 3–4 hours for each treatment, during which the patient’s blood is drawn out through a tube inserted in the dialysis fistula at a rate of 200-400 mL/min. The blood is then pumped through the dialyzer, and then the processed blood is pumped back into the patient’s bloodstream through another tube. During the procedure, the patient’s blood pressure is closely monitored, and if it becomes low, or the patient develops any other signs of low blood volume such as nausea, the dialysis attendant can administer extra fluid through the machine. During the treatment, the patient’s entire blood volume (about 5000 cc) circulates through the machine every 15 minutes.

At Suryadeep Hospital we have latest Haemodialysis machines for management of patients with Renal failure.The hemodialysis machine pumps the patient’s blood and the dialysate through the dialyzer. The dialysis machines at Suryadeep hospital are highly computerized and continuously monitor an array of safety-critical parameters, including blood and dialysate flow rates; dialysis solution conductivity, temperature, and pH; and analysis of the dialysate for evidence of blood leakage or presence of air. Any reading that is out of normal range triggers an audible alarm to alert the patient-care technician who is monitoring the patient. Dialysis is initiated and managed by specialized staff made up of nurses and technicians under the supervision of a senior specialist doctor

An extensive water purification system is absolutely critical for hemodialysis. Since dialysis patients are exposed to vast quantities of water, which is mixed with dialysate concentrate to form the dialysate, even trace mineral contaminants or bacterial endotoxins can filter into the patient’s blood. Because the damaged kidneys cannot perform their intended function of removing impurities, ions introduced into the bloodstream via water can build up to hazardous levels, causing numerous complications.

For this reason, water used in hemodialysis at Suryadeep Hospital is carefully purified before use. It is filtered, softened and then run through a tank containing activated charcoal to adsorb organic contaminants. Primary purification is then done by forcing water through a membrane with very tiny pores, a so-called reverse osmosis membrane. Final removal of leftover electrolytes is done by passing the water through a tank with ion-exchange resins, which remove any leftover anions or cations and replace them with hydroxyl and hydrogen molecules, respectively, leaving ultrapure water.

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